NB-IoT Smart Smoke Detection Solution White Paper
The " NB-IoT Smart Smoke Detection Solution White Paper" analyzes the problems and challenges of domestic stand-alone smoke fire detection alarms (hereinafter referred to as independent smoke detectors) products, and introduces an IoT platform based on the IoT platform and NB-IoT technology. Smoke detection fire alarm (hereinafter referred to as smart smoke sensor), and proposed a smart smoke sensor solution, including the solution's value, advantages and expectations for the future.
1.1 Status of domestic fire protection
In recent years, fires have occurred frequently, causing great loss of personnel and property. The state attaches great importance to it, and has successively issued relevant documents to clarify relevant requirements and implement fire safety responsibilities. At the same time, people's awareness of fire protection has gradually increased, independent smoke has been popularized to a certain extent, and it has played a certain role in fire prevention and disaster reduction. However, due to certain limitations of independent smoke detection products, the independent smoke detection quality on the market is uneven, and the functions are single, and only sound and light alarms can be issued. The alarm information cannot be received when people are not present, the working status cannot be grasped in real time, and the independent smoke sensor does not completely solve these problems. With the advancement of "smart fire protection" in the country, the traditional independent smoke sensor can no longer meet the new market demand, and new smart smoke sensor solutions are coming out.
From January to October 2017, a total of 219,000 fires were reported nationwide, killing 1065 people and injuring 679 people. Direct nuclear property losses were 2.62 billion yuan, a decrease of 21.3%, 17.7%, 29.9%, and 24.7%. Among them, there were 50 major fires, a decrease of 7 or 12.3% compared with the same period last year; 3 major fires occurred, and no major fires occurred during the same period last year; no particularly major fires occurred.
Residential fires are relatively frequent, with the most casualties. In terms of location, there were 95,000 fires in various types of houses, 23,000 fires in vehicles, 17,000 fires in densely populated areas, 15,000 fires in construction sites, factories, warehouses and flammable and explosive places, and fires in agricultural and sideline places. There were 14,000 fires, 19,000 fires from garbage waste, and 36,000 fires in other places. Among them, residential fires accounted for 43.5% of the total, causing 821 deaths and 77.1% of the total deaths; causing 446 injuries and 65.7% of the total injuries.
1.2 Policies and regulations are gradually improved
Based on the severe fire situation in China, on November 2, 2015, six ministries and agencies, including the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, the China Insurance Regulatory Commission, the Office of the National Working Committee for the Aged, and the China Disabled Persons' Federation, jointly issued and issued " Guiding Opinions on Actively Promoting the Fire Prevention and Control of Independent Smoke Detection Fire Alarms (Gong Xiao  No. 289), requires a full understanding of the important role of independent smoke alarms in fire prevention and control, and encourages and guides the expansion Application range of independent smoke alarm.
Opinions are clear, nursing homes for the elderly, welfare homes, services for the disabled, support services for the impoverished people, kindergartens, disabled and children's buildings, home care, "empty nest elderly", scattered elderly care for the poor, and other community services. Facilities such as community residents' activities are located in shantytowns, urban-rural junctions, traditional cultural villages, and old residential houses with fire resistance levels of three and below. Dormitories, rental houses, farmhouses, small hotels, underground living spaces and other dead fires are frequent Sites should promote the installation of independent smoke alarms; encourage the installation and use of independent smoke alarms in other residential buildings. The document also states that in areas where the use of independent smoke alarms is relatively concentrated, the use of networked products can be explored and synchronized. Auxiliary equipment such as remote monitors and reminders such as text messages are sent by guardians and managers.
On October 10, 2017, the Fire Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security issued the "Guiding Opinions on the Comprehensive Promotion of" Smart Fire Fighting "".
Opinions require that the urban Internet of Things fire remote monitoring system be applied to newly built high-rise residences to conduct real-time monitoring of fire protection facilities, electrical lines, gas pipelines, and evacuation stairs. In the old high-rise residential buildings, install and install independent fire detection alarms, simple sprinkler devices, fire emergency broadcasts, and independent flammable gas detectors, wireless manual alarms, wireless sound and light alarms and other facilities.
The State Council attaches great importance to it and issued the “Notice on Several Recent Fire Accidents” on December 4, 2017, placing higher requirements on fire safety work. The document points out that all regions should strengthen the investigation of fire hazards in "three-in-one", "all-in-one" buildings and group rented houses that integrate production, operation, storage and accommodation in combination with actual conditions. Install independent fire alarm detectors and implement night-time inspections by full-time administrators; those staying more than 30 people will be equipped with automatic fire extinguishing, fire alarm and other fire-fighting facilities in accordance with standards, and clarify that special personnel are responsible for fire management.
It can be seen that government departments and operators are vigorously promoting the implementation of smart smoke detection. Under the influence of policies and the improvement of people's fire awareness, the market size of smart smoke detection will develop rapidly.
In view of this, the China Fire Protection Association, China Consumer Cloud, China Telecom, and Huawei jointly released the "NB-IoT Smart Smoke Detection Solution White Paper (2018 Edition)" to comprehensively analyze the problems in the fire alarm industry and the widespread existence of traditional independent smoke detection. The pain point and the advantages of NB-IoT smart smoke detection, the NB-IoT smart smoke detection solution was proposed from the aspects of cloud, pipe, and terminal coordinated development, and the development trend of smart smoke detection was expected to promote deeper cooperation and win-win cooperation.
2. Problems and challenges in the fire alarm industry 2.1 Common pain points and problems in the fire protection industry In the 40 years of reform and opening up, the country has made tremendous progress and development in economic development and urban construction. However, the occurrence of fires is still the most common, most prominent and most harmful disaster in real life, and is directly related to the safety of people's lives. The big problem of property safety. The traditional fire protection industry has the following pain points in many aspects that need to be solved urgently. 2.1.1 Failure alarm processing is not timely The signals of traditional fire detectors are transmitted by the fire-fighting bus. If the detector fails, the alarm signal can only be transmitted to the fire control room. The notification object is single. The owner, gridman, and micro-fire station are not aware. The property can only be controlled by fire control. Seeing the alarm information, the room cannot seriously deal with the alarm information for possible smoke, gas alarms and faults, causing serious losses. 2.1.2 Fire hidden danger places cannot be monitored in place In 2017, there were 14 severe fires in residential, densely populated and nine small places, causing 80 deaths and 122 injuries, showing the characteristics of fire prone, rapid fire, difficult to extinguish, and serious harm. At present, high-fire places, such as houses, densely populated places, and nine small places, are due to old buildings and complex structures. The installation of traditional fire alarm equipment in such places has problems such as difficult construction wiring and high system cost. Due to the lack of necessary fire alarm equipment, effective monitoring of fire hazards cannot be formed through technical means. It is a dead end of social fire prevention, and there are serious fire safety hazards. Once a fire occurs, the delay of personnel evacuation and rescue and fire suppression will cause serious loss of life and property. . 2.1.3 Management and maintenance of fire equipment is difficult With the acceleration of urbanization, the number of key units and fire hazards has continued to increase, and there are fewer fire supervisors and more difficult to take care of. The national public security fire department has only about 20,000 fire supervisors, and more than 10,000 are engaged in supervision and inspection. Hidden hazards relied on on-site inspections and insufficient scientific and technological support; the quality of the personnel in the consumer control room was low, the posts were missing, and the phenomenon of missing posts was prominent. There were a lot of hidden dangers of oversight. On the other hand, the maintenance of the fire protection equipment after delivery is not in place. In the society, maintenance companies are mixed, lacking standardized and effective supervision, lacking professional and technical personnel, and having a weak sense of work responsibility. The fire maintenance inspection is mainly based on manual regular site inspections, which is efficient. Low, high cost; resulting in more inspection and maintenance of fire protection equipment, and there is a large loophole in management and maintenance. It has laid a huge hidden danger for timely warning and alarm after the fire. 2.1.4 Socialization of fire protection is difficult to implement The awareness of fire safety responsibilities of social units is not in place; the industry department ’s fire control work is “unwilling, unwilling, and unwilling to manage”, and there is a lack of systematic supervision and management of the main use of fire equipment, testing units, and maintenance units . Compared with the United States, Japan, Western Europe and other developed countries, people's awareness of fire safety is weak, the penetration rate of fire fighting equipment is very low, and the socialization of publicity and education is low; the United States and Canada have adopted laws and regulations in families from the mid-1970s By the early 1990s, the popularity of independent smoke alarms had increased to 91%. Japan revised the "Self-defense Fire Fighting Law" in 2003 to stipulate that new buildings must be installed with residential fire alarms (ie, stand-alone fire detection alarms) after June 1, 2006, and old buildings need to be installed after June 1, 2011, and Developed a promotion time plan for various regions and established a residential fire prevention countermeasures promotion agreement; Australia has mandated that households be required to install independent smoke alarms from July 1, 2007. Most households in these two countries now install Got this alarm. The effect is the most obvious in France. In 2013, the relevant regulations were promulgated. In less than 3 years, most families have installed independent smoke alarms. The socialization of fire protection can be market-driven and driven by regulations , Government propaganda, insurance-driven and other methods are gradually implemented. 2.1.5 Fire rescue is difficult With the continuous emergence of new materials, new buildings and new energy sources, and the increase of hazardous chemicals, the fire load is large, and the forms of fire prevention and fire fighting are becoming increasingly severe. However, in reality, in the event of a fire, due to tension and fear, there is a mistake in the transmission of the telephone alarm information, and there is a certain delay in the manual telephone alarm, which affects the time of firefighters' arrival. Nongcun and other densely populated places, the roads are complicated and the fire rescue passages are generally blocked, which severely hinders fire fighting. In addition, the lack of new technology can not timely grasp the situation of the fire site and affect the rescue command at the scene. 2.2 Problems with independent smoke detection In the process of using traditional smoke detectors in homes, ancient buildings, industrial parks and other places, traditional independent smoke detectors have a single function and can only sound and light alarms. The battery power failure cannot be known in time, the alarm information cannot be received when people are not present, and the working status cannot be grasped in real time, which increases the difficulty and management cost of fire safety management. The 2G / 3G / 4G smoke sensor introduced in recent years is also not suitable for large-scale and batch installation due to the influence of signal coverage and signal penetration. Comprehensive research and analysis of independent smoke sensors in the market, currently independent smoke The main problems are as follows: 2.2.1 What if there is no one in the room? When the independent smoke sensor alarms, it will sound an alarm sound. Personnel can detect it at the scene and receive alarm notifications. If it is installed in the bedroom, half of the time, the occupants are not in the residence. Even if a fire occurs, they cannot be notified in time. At the same time, the property, the miniature fire station and the neighbors cannot understand the fire situation at the first time, and miss the best opportunity for fire fighting. Resulting in greater losses. 2.2.2 What if the alarm battery is dead? At present, most independent smoke detectors on the market use 1.5V alkaline LR6 batteries, and the service life is generally about 3 years. After the battery reports a low power failure, if personnel are not on site, they cannot be informed and replaced in time. 2.2.3 What if I fall asleep and don't hear? After detecting the fire, the independent smoke sensor emits an audible and visual alarm with an audible alarm greater than 80dB. For a house or "three-in-one" place with an independent smoke sensor, the party cannot ensure that the alarm sound is heard after falling asleep. 2.2.4 I wonder if the independent smoke sensor is still working after a long time? After the independent smoke sensor is installed, according to various installation environments, the equipment may fall off and be damaged. It is impossible to know the status of the equipment in time, to ensure the normal operation of the equipment, and not to play a good role in fire prevention and disaster reduction. 2.2.5 In case of a fire, can I notify the immediate evacuation of nearby people? Independent smoke detection can only achieve point-to-point detection and alarm in a single space. It does not have multi-party alarm and cross-space alarm functions. When a fire is detected, the alarm method is single, and it may not be able to notify the first time. Notify neighbors of evacuation.
3.Fusion of NB-IoT and smoke detectors Five highlights of 3.1NB-IoT NB-IoT (NarrowBandInternet of Things), which is a narrowband Internet of Things based on cellular technology. As a leader in long-range wireless communication technology, NB-IoT has five highlights: high security, wide coverage, low power consumption, large connectivity and low cost. The following table:
Carrier-grade security: two-way authentication, strict air interface encryption, dedicated spectrum
20dB gain: Narrowband functional spectral density improvement, retransmission times, coding gain
Low power consumption
/ 接受时间低 3-5 years battery life: simplified protocol, low chip power consumption, high power amplifier efficiency, low transmit / receive time
50K connections per hour: high spectrum efficiency, small packet data transmission characteristics, extremely low terminal activation ratio
5S module cost: Simplify RF hardware, simplify protocols, reduce costs, and reduce baseband complexity
3.2NB-IoT characteristics in smart smoke
网络部署减少中间通信环节，直接一跳上网，降低故障概率，提高传输可靠性，无需设备厂家具备无线网规能力，免网络维护。 High reliability: The network deployment reduces intermediate communication links, directly jumps to the Internet, reduces the probability of failure, improves transmission reliability, does not require equipment manufacturers to have wireless network planning capabilities, and frees network maintenance.
运营商网络基于授权频谱组网，电信级高可靠、抗干扰，基于3GPP标准网络层安全+传输层安全方案+应用层安全，三层保障物联网终端及数据安全。 High security: The operator's network is based on authorized spectrum networking. It is carrier-class highly reliable and anti-interference. It is based on 3GPP standard network layer security + transport layer security solution + application layer security.
能实现比GSM高20db的覆盖增益；覆盖能力提升了100倍，即使在地下车库、地下室、地下管道等信号难以到达的地方也能覆盖到。 Deep coverage: It can achieve a coverage gain of 20db higher than GSM; the coverage capability has been increased by 100 times, even in places where signals such as underground garages, basements, and underground pipes are difficult to reach.
电池待机时长可达5年以上，无需频繁更换电池，降低维护成本。 Low power consumption: The battery standby time can reach more than 5 years, without frequent battery replacement, reducing maintenance costs.
以NB-IoT为代表的LPWA(低功耗广域)物联网技术，支持面向5GmMTC（海量机器类通信）应用方向，持续演进。 Evolvable: LPWA (Low Power Wide Area) Internet of Things technology represented by NB-IoT supports 5GmMTC (Mass Machine Communication) application direction and continues to evolve.
可远程独立监控每一个感烟探测器，周期性上报烟感器状态，可远程配置与诊断探测器及通信问题。 Perceivable: Each smoke detector can be monitored independently and remotely, the status of the smoke detector can be reported periodically, and the detector and communication problems can be remotely configured and diagnosed.
无需布线和取电，即插即用，安装和上网调试简单，部署成本降低90%以上。 Easy installation: plug and play without wiring and power, simple installation and online debugging, and reduced deployment costs by more than 90%.
4.NB-IoT Smart Smoke Detection Solution 4.1NB-IoT Smart Smoke Sensing Overall Solution NB-loT smart smoke detection solution is based on smart smoke, based on the Internet of Things, big data storage and analysis, cloud computing, mobile Internet, combined with the characteristics of the fire detection and alarm industry, breaking through the traditional single product sales model and expanding new services Channels, provide systematic and comprehensive alarm solutions, create a future-oriented smart smoke detection system framework, provide value-added services, and create more social value.
Source: Qianjia Network http://www.qianjia.com/html/2019-11/01_354494.html